Category Archives: eci832

Have you examined equity lately?

Photo Credit: From Business Korea Article

equity in magnifying glassWow!  Tuesday evening  was filled with lots of learning! Bob, Katherine, Ian, and Ainsley did an amazing job presenting their sides on the debate topic- Technology is a force for equity in society? I have been struggling to begin this blog post because my mind has been bouncing back and forth not knowing where to start.  I decided to first to examine the word equity and I turned to the online Merriam-Webster’s dictionary to help me wrap my head around what equity was defined as.  The simple definition in the online dictionary states equity is “fairness or justice in the way people are treated” and the simple definition for equality is “the quality or state of being equal: the quality or state of having the same rights, social status, etc.”  Then I began to explore equity in education and began to reflect about my experiences as a educator and a student.

What does fair look like in education ? 

fair quote

Photo Credit: Source

Photo Credit: Source

soccer pic of equityI agree that “Fair doesn’t mean giving every child the same thing, it means giving every child what they need.”  As depicted in the picture as a teacher I could give each student the same the guide reading lesson or tool to use in the classroom, but is that equality helping each of my students?  No it is not…Every student is unique in their own way and deserve to have the opportunity to learn and grow through differentiated instruction.  In order for each student to be successful I need to provide my class with different supports to help make sure everyone can reach their full potential.

Does technology help bridge the gaps and make education more equitable?

With the use of technology students and adults are able to go online to help receive some education in a variety of courses.  Daphne Koller discusses Coursera in a Ted Talk-What we’re learning from online education.  Coursera gives students the capability to log onto the website to sign up for free online courses that were designed by prestigious universities. She talked about how Coursera:

  • breaks away from one size fits all model of education-personalized curriculum
  • helps people receive higher education
  • there are enrichment topics
  • education is a fundamental human right
  • allows for life long learning

In the video Koller explains that the course has even helped out a parent whose child was very sick since was not able to attend classes because he would be exposed to germs that would harm his sick child.  This child’s parent was able to log onto Coursera from the comfort of home while keeping his child safe.  Koller even talked about how people can present a certificate after they have taken a class or classes and some are actually able to get credit if they approach and talk to a university.  It was also discussed that these courses are free.  That is amazing because then it helps so many people from a lower socio-economic status to have the opportunity to take courses if they can not afford them, but are all the courses actually free?  When I looked into free courses there were 1093 matches on the Coursera website.  At the top of the website it stated, “Looking for free courses? For all courses on Coursera:

  • You can explore lectures and non-graded material for free
  • Prices shown reflect the cost for the complete course experience, including graded assignments and certificates
  • Financial aid is available for learners who qualify”

I thought the courses were free?  If I did not have a lot of money I would be disappointed that maybe a course that I wanted to take was not free and that I would not be able to take it because I could not financially afford it.  On the website does state “financial aid is available for learners who qualify”, but how do people qualify?  How many courses/classes can someone qualify for?  How much does the financial aid cover?

In the article Ed Tech’s Inequalities there was an excerpt written from edX CEO Anant Agarwal that stated,

One way MOOCs have changed education is by increasing access. MOOCs make education borderless, gender-blind, race-blind, class-blind and bank account-blind. Up to now, quality education – and in some cases, any higher education at all – has been the privilege of the few. MOOCs have changed that. Anyone with an internet connection can have access. We hear from thousands of students, many in under-served, developing countries, about how grateful they are for this education.

What about the students who do not have the access to the internet?  Are students still able to learn if they do not have access to the internet or devices?  As discussed in the article flipped classrooms are also a big trend in education.  Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry wrote an article called “What Is The Flipped Classroom Model and Why Is It Amazing?”  In the article there is an infographic that explains what a flipped classroom is, what the supports say about the flipped classroom learning, and what the critics say.  In the article, the Ed Tech’s Inequalities, and another article provided by the disagree side-Scaling The Digital Divide: Home Computer Technology and Student Achieve, all talk about the digital divide.  On the infographic is states “Not all students have meaningful access to model devices and the Internet.  The flipped classroom can further alienate students from lower socio-economic backgrounds.”  The infographic goes on further outlining how students who are privileged have access to:

  • “personal computer with high speed internet access in bedroom”
  • “owns latest smartphone and tablet”
  • “attends schools with large tax base and private funding”

While students who are underprivileged have:

  • “access to limited number of public computers for limited amount of time”
  • “family cannot afford fancy mobile device (or breakfast)”
  • “school is underfunded”

There are a lot of really benefits for using the flipped classroom model.  Students actually have time to be engaged in the learning in the classroom,have the chance to have meaningful conversations and more work time instead of just listening to a teacher lecture.  They can listen to their teacher from home and have the opportunity to play the lesson back as many times as needed to understand the material that is being presented.  If teachers use the flipped classroom model are they creating more of a divide in their classroom?  Are they adding more stress on the students who do not have the same access as other students in the class?

Does Technology Create Equity in Society?

 

yes no

Photo Credit: atayepley via Compfight cc

 

standardizedanimalsIn Stephanie Pipke-Painchaud’s blog post she reflected about her experience as a Differentiated Instruction Facilitator (DIF) and added this cartoon (Photo Credit: Image from Rockin Teacher Materials) onto her blog post as it her minded her of conversations she has had about differentiated learning.  I can remember seeing this cartoon in one of my undergraduate classes and discussing the importance of differentiation.  When I was looking into more about differentiation and the cartoon that Stephanie used on her post I came across an post written by Dave Mulder called The Teachers’ Lounge: Getting Real about Differentiation. In the post Mulder discusses a conference that he attended where Rick Wormeli was presenting on  formative assessment, summative judgment, and descriptive feedback.  Wormeli shared the same cartoon that Stephanie had used and often the argument is “that we should have different standards of assessment for different students, because the students are clearly unique individuals with different strengths and weaknesses and it isn’t fair to hold them all to the same standards.”  However, Wormeli put a twist on the cartoon and suggests that “we actually should hold students to the same standard.”  He explains that “If climbing the tree is a necessary part of the curriculum, then we simply must have every student get up that tree. Even the fish!” 

When I was first reading this I did not know what to think!

Wormeli stated that “it’s incumbent upon us as educators to do everything we can to help our students meet the high standard.”  I think it is important for all students to be given the opportunity to succeed and reach for a personal best.   How does a teacher help a student meet these standards?  In the post it was discussed it would “likely mean allowing different paths to reaching the standard, and providing ongoing, descriptive feedback to students as they are working to meet the standard that has been set: what is working, what is not working, what else they might try.”  To illustrate his ideas during the presentation he shared cartoons to show case how the other animals could climb the tree.  This picture of the fish (Photo Credit:  Mulder’s Photo from Wormeli Presentation) is just one of the examples of the cartoons that he shared to demonstrate the importance of providing students will multiple pathways. The pictures also made me think of our debate and how many of those animals used assisted technology to help them climb the tree.

The article “Assistive Technology Tools-Supporting Literacy Learning for All Learners in the Inclusive Classroom” that Bob and Katherine provided for us to read connects to differentiating for students.  It discusses how differentiation can be challenging, but “One way that teachers can support the learning needs of a range of students is through assistive technology, which enhances students’ ability to perform and complete tasks with efficiency and independence.”  As Erin talked about in her blog post I have seen first hand that assistive technology has opened up the doors for students in the school that I teach at.  I have also heard stories from friends who teach in different divisions and how technology is enhancing learning and providing students with opportunities in their schools too.  In Tyler’s post, Is There Equity in Education, he has included two videos that showcase how technology has not only helped two people at school, but has made their lives better.  Those two videos demonstrate truly how technology can make a difference in a person’s life.   Amanada Morin lists 8 examples of assistive technology and adaptive tools that can be used in the classroom.  In the examples listed some of the tools are low-tech while others are more costly.  I agree with Kyle Dumont when his discussed in his blog post:

While I am in this class because I believe using technology is the way of the future of education, I also know that you can not replace good teaching. Yes these tools are amazing and they can help your student develop a deeper understanding of what concept you are attempting to cover, but if you are not using them appropriately they are as useful as a dried up ball point pen on a Scantron sheet. 

I think Kyle made a valid point that these tools are amazing, but teachers need to know how to effectively implement them in the classroom.  He raises another great point in his blog post about the cost in time and money invested in teaching educators how to use the tools in their classroom with the examples he provided.  I also think it is vital that students need time to understand how to use the tools being provided to them.  If students are not trained in how to use it to benefit his or her learning then it just becomes another gadget that the child may not take good care of.   I believe if a student knows how to use it and they are benefiting from the technology then the child will take care of the device.  Student’s would not want to damage something that is helping them in a positive way.

 

money and roads

Photo Credit: Source

Technology can open the doors and provide so many opportunities and paths for people…But at what cost?

Bob and Katherine introduced me to a new technology that I did not know existed.  Technology can not only help in education, but in health care system as now there are robots delivering health care in Saskatchewan!  It is amazing how this technology gives people opportunity to see specialists without having to spend so much money on travel, but how much does this technology cost?  I am guessing that this technology is not cheap as there would be more robots made available and how much does it cost to train the doctors and staff to know and understand how to use this technology effectively?  Just like in education technology is helping to open the doors for equity within society, but it will not reach everyone as money is always a huge factor.  It costs money to train everyone and purchase the technology!  When students  and patients are able to access the technology/tools and everyone knows how to implement it effectively then I think technology is very beneficial. 


Major Project Rollout

IAMADIGITALCITIZEN (Follow the link to visit the new website!)

I am ecstatic to be done! It’s been a fun and challenging semester. Let’s talk about the major project first. This project initially looked entirely different. As I learned more and more about digital citizenship through this class, I realized that creating a practical resource for myself and other teachers, admin, and parents would be the best use of my time, as it would have purpose outside of this class. Too often in other classes term papers get written, then are left to collect dust on a shelf, or (cyberdust?) on Google Docs. I’m really happy with the results, and am glad I decided to create a resource that would support all those invested in teaching and supporting digital citizenship.

The following links provide a chronological summary of the content that speaks to the final project over the course of the semester:

Reflecting Upon the Need for Media Literacy in Our Classrooms

Digital Literacy Implementation: Not as Easy as it Seemed…

On the Digital Citizenship Trail: Bushwakking Through Articles

The Benefits of Incorporating Peer Assessment into a Game Development Project

Making Parents Accountable: The Missing Piece To Digital Citizenship Education

Four Strategies Every Teacher Needs to Meet Necessary Future Literacies For Students

Encouraging Teachers to Open the Doors to Digital Literacies in Their Classrooms

Using Read & Write for Google Chrome to Support Literacy Growth in the Classroom

Back Breaking Major Project

What’s the Point?

Common Sense Education’s Scope & Sequence VS. Ribble’s 9 Elements

 

 


ECI832 – Summary of Learning

Yay! The summary is done! I’ve used a mash-up approach to my summary of learning, which like in ECI831 seemed to fit the class. You’ll notice right away that I am taking clips that I have found online, and have repurposed them (in some ways more obvious than others) to fit the content of the video. Many of the clips were found on archive.org, a website that offers a wide variety of public domain, or Creative Commons licensed work. Other clips were taken from youtube using a Chrome add-on. The last time I made my summary of learning for ECI831, I wasn’t so worried about copyright infringement, as I knew that this was for educational purposes, because I was using select clips, and lastly because I figured my audience would be in the +10’s, and so I would fly under the radar.

This class, and the research I did when compiling the website I made for my final project, helped me to better understand what is and isn’t ok. The best way to quickly summarize how fair use works is to watch this video by Common Sense Media:

This helped me to ensure that anything I was using was justified because it fell within the 4 Points of Fair Use. The only portion I gave credit to was the music, which was something I just didn’t have the time to do myself. Lindstrom is an amazing musician from Norway, and aside from the track being solid, it also met the time requirements for a song without needing to loop, and thus draw attention to.

I wish I had a better mic as the sound quality of the voice isn’t as great as I would like. I would also have liked to have had access to higher quality video files, as when they are blown up full screen, they lose a lot of their quality.

The video was created entirely in iMovie.

I hope you enjoyed the summary. Let me know what you thought!


What’s the Point?

We all know by this point how important digital literacy and digital citizenship are for our students. Like any new initiative roll out, things will take time before the continuum that the Saskatchewan Government has created begins to gain traction in schools and school boards. Like the video we watched in class of the lone raver at the music festival, once others join, more and more will find this focus on digital citizenship irresistible (or mandatory), and will have it incorporated into their classrooms.

Creating a buy-in then, is essential for those first few converts. In this case, what can we do to pique the interests of others (teachers, educational admin) to take this SK continuum seriously? The document is at this point not going to be touched by many. While resources abound around the internet, it’s intimidating for anyone, let alone an educator that feels uncomfortable using email as a means of communication with parents, to read such a document and put together resources that are authentic.

It’s fortunate that this class exists as a means of creating those buy-ins for schools, teachers, and yes, parents to see how it really isn’t so intimidating a topic, and that it does need to be a subject that is broached in the classroom/school/home.

The website I’m currently making will hopefully serve as a stop gap between the SK Curriculum and Ribble’s 9 Elements for parents, school admin, and teachers I list parents first simply because without home support, there is not going to be the comprehensive consistency that is required to monitor and support positive behaviours online. School admin comes next because, let’s face it, without the pressure to add yet another topic into the classroom dialogue, most teachers will exclude it.

Not because it isn’t important, but because, and I’m preaching to the choir at this point, teachers are already overworked and are juggling a thousand things at once; one more initiative, and everything gets affected.

School admin will need to set up a school environment that conforms to the suggestions and requirements laid out by the SK Digital Citizenship document, and to provide teachers with a place to start that does require a buy in, but isn’t as simple as step-by-step classroom lessons. Alongside this facilitation, a literacy or technology specialist (usually shared between a number of schools) would be excellent in supporting teacher learning. Giving teachers the opportunity to take PD on this curriculum, as well as improving their digital proficiency in classroom supports like Google Drive, Classroom, and Read & Write for Google Chrome would improve confidence and would likely increase the chances that teachers would follow through with modeling and instructing students in these areas.

Creating a timeframe to roll out this initiative would also be helpful for schools. This time of the year would be a terrible time to roll out a new initiative. Everyone is coming off report cards, the holidays are fast approaching, and everyone needs a break. Making a mention of the rollout before Christmas might provide teachers the opportunity to simply mull the idea of digital citizenship around in their heads over the break. Following the holiday, admin could introduce the SK Digital Curriculum to their staff, alongside an easily understood and accessible website that offers lots of resources and tips for teachers. Teachers would then have a variety of PD opportunities to look deeper into these resources, and to brainstorm how to pull these resources into authentic learning experiences. The goal could be that all staff are to try and implement this new curriculum into their classrooms in the Fall. This sets a goal that is far enough in advance that it is manageable for staff. Getting a new initiative thrown in your lap on the first day back after summer is never welcomed warmly, so knowing ahead of time would be ideal.

This is what has been on my mind over the last couple weeks as I’ve formed a love/hate relationship with the WordPress website creator. I sincerely am hoping to create something that will be relevant, accessible, and useful to my colleagues, as well as to my school, my students, and their parents.

Star Wars is SOOO topical right now

One future idea for this class in the future would be to collaborate more to create a class-built site that answers all the issues I have spoken about in this post. That would ensure that it would be used as a resource in the future, and perhaps even purchased? by the ministry as the much-needed interactive resource part of the SK Digital Citizenship package. Thoughts?

 

 


Encouraging Teachers to Open the Door to Digital Literacies in their Classrooms

Last week I had written about the need for teachers to adopt strategies into their classrooms that would allow for students to have the opportunity to build a proficiency in ‘new’ literacies that will undoubtedly be an asset in their future education, as well as in a workplace environment. (See: Four Strategies Every Teacher Needs…)

The best part I felt about Kist’s list was that all the strategies he recommends do not require any teacher to jump blindfolded off a cliff in the hopes something will catch them from plummeting into a techno-distopian pit of stress and uncertainty, because, as you all know (you’re all teachers reading this right??) teachers have reservations towards everything. And rightfully so.

That pit is deeeep….

I think teachers like to question 1) any new initiative being brought in as to whether how successful the new strategy is in terms of students actually benefiting, and; 2) “How much extra work is this going to add to my plate?”  The second reason sounds so selfish compared to the first, but honestly, this happens. And it’s not so selfish when you think about how much work every teacher is putting into their lessons, classrooms, students, extra-curr., etc. I can’t think of a single teacher, except for Harry Wong, who doesn’t stay before or after school to finish work, and still brings things home to work on later that evening.

Rant aside, teachers have been burned in the past with board initiatives that don’t mesh with their own teaching style, or are a passing fad that doesn’t have the same positive effect as a different approach.

I recently attended a screencast presentation where, due to technical glitches, much of the presentation was unintelligible. During the presentation, the screencaster had mentioned that the following day he would have an updated version and a step by step pdf available on his website that anyone has access to. This experience had me wondering, is this something that those attending mandatory tech PD are likely to experience? Woudn’t it have been better to make a more polished version the first time around, offer the pdf, and not hold a specific time, often outside of school hours?

The great thing about our current tech is that we have the ability to offer PD on anyone’s own time, without the restriction of place. This keeps teachers in the classroom, but opens up the debate as to whether this new freedom also places further pressure on teachers to use more time outside of school hours to commit to learning new strategies; time which is likely already allocated into PLC times, or PD time during school PD days.

True dat…

Here’s the viable option I came up with. Thanks to the flexibility of webinars and screencasts, instead of locking teachers into a specific time that doesn’t fit into an already busy work schedule (which undoubtably breeds contempt towards the new pd being introduced), why not instead offer pre-made tutorials that teachers can access and interact with during times that are set aside for them? As my major project I have taken on the responsibility of rolling out the digital citizenship curriculum for my school. As part of this, I have started creating a series of screencasts that will allow for the different PLC pods in my school to learn how to set up tools like Google Drive and Google Classroom in their own classrooms. I have started at this point because, going back to Kist’s article, integrating digital literacy into the classroom needn’t necessarily rely on technologically savvy individuals; rather it should be something that is easy to implement, while at the same time supporting the more ‘traditional’ literacies that are already the focus of classrooms everywhere.

Giving teachers the opportunity to try out these new classroom tools, in a straightforward way, in a way that fits with their schedule will hopefully provide a stress free way for teachers to try and see that the tech isn’t as intimidating as possible.

The first tutorial I made was on Google Drive. This has recently become very easy to access, thanks in part to RBE synching up our work webmail accounts with Google. Suddenly, getting students (and teachers) to memorize TWO user names and passwords isn’t a problem; anyone logging into Drive only needs to remember the one password that gets you into the RBE network. In the past this has been the biggest hesitancy with teachers, as it used to be a huge pain to try and get every student logged into their accounts. I made the screencast as streamlined as possible, and purposely tried to keep it brief, only showing the basics, along with some editing options. Since sharing it with my staff, I have had some positive feedback from teachers who haven’t tried using it in their classroom, and said that the tutorial made it a lot easier to understand, and that they will try using it as well.

The second tutorial was around Google Classroom, and again was short, streamlined, and catered to teachers. I focused on how to set up your Classroom, and how to set up assignments, along with some of the benefits I have found since using this tech in my classroom.

The next tutorials I will be making will be a screencast on Read & Write for Google, as well as a easy to understand video for teachers about the SK Digital Citizenship Curriculum.

Through the making of the screencasts, initially I felt very uncomfortable, but slowly have come around to it’s use. I think that, going back to getting teachers to buy into incorporating these tools, and the curriculum, videos are going to be the best bang for my buck. Throwing on a video seems to offer more interest, and it’s condensed nature will allow for more teachers to give it a try, even if while they watch it while marking, or multitasking in the ways teachers are best at.

Would you prefer this over a set meeting? Would you still buy in and do the PD? Let me know what you think!


Four Strategies Every Teacher Needs to Meet Necessary Future Literacies for Students

In the past week, my understanding of digital literacy has changed dramatically, due in part to the excellent readings by the NCTE and the IFTF on new and emerging digital literacies that all students need to have in order to be relevant with future workplace needs. I’ve realized that a much more meaningful focus, using the focus of Essential Skills for the 21st Century, as beautifully laid out by collaborators Jen Stewart-Mitchell and Genna Rodruigez, may provide a better start for instructors to understand how to authentically incorporate meaningful instruction in new ways to meet these needs, while at the same time not feeling like they’ve jumped overboard the ship traditional teaching practices.  

In William Kist‘s 2013 article New Literacies and the Common Core, he provides four strategies for assisting in integrating new media literacies in the classroom. This was a great eye opener as it offers excellent suggestions that will help transition teachers not comfortable using digital technology, as well as to encourage teachers to branch out and to embrace all forms of media in their instruction. So without further ado, here they are:

Give Students Practice Reading Screen-Based Texts
“Some of the new media classroom activities that I’ve observed focus on helping students gain practice in a key skill advocated by the Common Core standards: the ability to read texts closely—to be text detectives. As students enter a world in which they will do much of their reading and writing on a screen, it makes sense to start by looking at non-print texts, such as in the genres of video, music, and visual art.”

Student activities do not solely focus on reading online texts. Rather, the term text can be multi sensory and non-print in nature, going from video, music, visual art, video games, etc.

William Kist’s excellent suggestion for integrating different text into a lesson ultimately focusing on print based text.

Often looking for details in a video, such as watching for the way a movie may use edits and types of alternating shots to establish a momentum or tempo, is easier than pulling out similar literary devices. As a precursor to analyzing a print based text, looking at a non-print text will both refine the student’s ability to be a text-detective in any format, with the added benefit of helping the student to recognize the differences and similarities in the creation of those different texts. The following video,  Speilburg’s expertly directed chase scene in Raiders of the Lost Ark is the de facto example of how control and precise execution of editing, shots, and soundtrack (establishing shot, close up, etc.) create tension and tempo to an already exciting scene, making it that much more engaging to watch. 

Give Students Practice in Digital Writing

“Anyone who has ever written for online publication knows that screen-based writing presents different challenges from those involved with page-based writing. For example, online writers need to understand when adding a hyperlink assists the message and when it detracts; they also need to consider graphic design and layout. The teachers I have observed spend time teaching their students to understand writing for online publication, including all the opportunities that such writing provides.”

The activity proposed by the author is a multi-genre autobiography, where students pull in a wide variety of different texts (print and non-print) into a digital powerpoint type program, such as Google Slides, Prezi, Slidecast, etc. Students then have the opportunity to analyze the similarities and differences of how each text influenced them. It also provides students the opportunity to work on digital writing, in both a print and non-print fashion.

“Going through this exercise is a kind of postmodern adventure as we demystify various kinds of texts and help students see our commonalities and differences as human beings who have grown up with a huge smorgasbord of texts.”

This sounds like an excellent activity for students to work on, especially in terms of seeing how our identity is largely informed by the external influences on our lives. Being able to understand this will allow students to be more judicial when choosing what to post online, knowing that these things may go against what they want to be associated with.

Give Students Practice in Collaborative Writing

Both the NCTE article on 21st Century Literacies and the IFTF article on Future Work Skills 2020 focus on the need to be able to work collaboratively with others across cultural and physical boundaries through the use of digital technologies. While this may seem like science fiction to many, the reality is that with many businesses being internationally based, with offices across the world, having the toolset to work in this fashion, as well as the ability to interact non-judgmentally with others will be a huge asset, or may even be the expected norm.

Giving students the opportunity to work with other classrooms around the world on projects would be of great benefit to improve student worldview, as well as to see the benefits and the ability to workaround or adapt to any possible limitations such technologies and interactions would enable.

Collaborative writing can be even done within the classroom, through use of a Google word document that all students in the classroom can edit or add to on the fly. I have found this activity to be a great motivator for students, especially when the document is also projected in front of the classroom, so periodically we can all stop to reassess the working document, and to provide praise for student work.

Give Students Practice Working with Informational Texts

The use of non-fiction texts in the classroom are becoming more and more prevalent, in part, thanks to the ability to find vast amounts of relevant information through the internet. Gone are the days of looking through the encyclopedia, or even accessing similar tools through CD-rom. With all this information available, it’s important students have the ability to sort and process this information into something relevant to their task at hand. So, what better time to teach these meta-cognitive strategies than now. Teachers need to be explicitly teaching these strategies to their students, then giving them the opportunity to practice them in a safe supportive environment.

Accessing these informational texts through online collaborative projects, as well as the aforementioned multi-genre autobiography are two excellent ways of authentically incorporating. Having students create their own wikipedia pages about informational content will also have them sourcing and compiling relevant information, citing the sources, and working on presenting it all in a aesthetically and purposeful fashion.

Having the foresight to integrate these four strategies into the way you approach your instruction meets a litany of technological and literary goals that students will need to be an active member in our future competitive workplace, as well as providing them the ability to be a much more open-minded and empathetic individual. And best of all, it’s really not too tough to integrate. Our school board actively encourages use of Google Drive and Classroom, and once these are comfortable to the instructor, they provide the opportunity for all the above listed activities.

Featured image: Otomo Katsuhiro’s Tetsuo, found in the seminal cyberpunk work Akira
http://www.wall321.com/thumbnails/detail/20120711/akira%20tetsuo%201280×1585%20wallpaper_www.wall321.com_78.jpg